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Celiac Disease Linked to Many Skin Conditions

Eczema, Psoriasis and Hives Occur More Often in Celiacs

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Updated July 01, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

Celiac disease affects more than just your digestive system — it also may affect your skin.

Around 15% to 25% of celiacs suffer from dermatitis herpetiformis, a rash considered the skin manifestation of celiac disease. But this is by no means the only skin problem people with celiac disease may have. Eczema, psoriasis, acne, chronic dry skin, hives and alopecia areata are possible, too. For some reason, they affect celiacs more often than the general population.

Although there's currently little clear medical evidence that consuming gluten actually causes these skin conditions, in some cases people have found relief by following the gluten-free diet.

Skin Conditions Associated with Celiac Disease Span Wide Spectrum

The skin conditions associated with celiac disease run the gamut from itchy rashes to hair loss, but most seem to be at least in part autoimmune or genetic in nature. Here's a summary of the most common skin conditions currently associated with celiac disease, plus links to additional information:

• Dermatitis herpetiformis and Celiac Disease

Dermatitis herpetiformis, a skin rash caused by gluten consumption, is usually (but not always) one of the itchiest rashes you'll ever experience, and lesions can sting and burn as well as itch. Lesions can appear anywhere, but occur most often on the elbows, knees, buttocks, lower back and the back of the neck and head.

If you have dermatitis herpetiformis, you're considered to also have celiac as long as your celiac blood tests also are positive. Although your physician can prescribe the medication dapsone to temporarily subdue the rash and its itching, the gluten-free diet represents the only long-term treatment for dermatitis herpetiformis.

More on dermatitis herpetiformis:
Dermatitis Herpetiformis - The Basics
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Diagnosed by Skin Biopsy
Do I Have Celiac if I Have Dermatitis Herpetiformis?
Dapsone for Dermatitis Herpetiformis Sufferers
Managing Your Dermatitis Herpetiformis with the Gluten-Free Diet
Can My Dermatitis Herpetiformis Go Into Remission?
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Photos

• Psoriasis and Celiac Disease

Several studies show that the skin condition psoriasis, which causes thick, scaly red plaques to develop on your skin, shares a strong link with gluten consumption and celiac disease. Psoriasis patients often have high levels of antibodies to gluten circulating in their bloodstreams, which indicates that they're reacting to gluten in their diets even if they haven't been diagnosed with celiac disease.

It's not clear whether the gluten is causing the psoriasis, or if psoriasis patients also have higher rates of celiac disease — more research is needed to determine the cause and effect. However, some anecdotal reports indicate that psoriasis patients can see their skin symptoms improve dramatically when they adopt a gluten-free diet.

More on psoriasis:
Celiac Disease and Psoriasis

• Eczema and Celiac Disease

Eczema, another itchy rash, causes scaly, whitish patches on your skin. Eczema occurs most often in children, but adults also can suffer from the skin condition. Although the primary treatment for eczema is topical corticosteroids, there's some evidence that for some people, eczema may be linked to celiac disease. For these people, a gluten-free diet may help to treat the skin condition.

More on eczema:
Celiac Disease and Eczema

• Alopecia Areata and Celiac Disease

Alopecia areata, an autoimmune condition in which your body attacks your hair follicles and causes your hair to fall out, also has been linked in research studies to celiac disease. Again, the link between the two conditions isn't clear, and could reflect a higher incidence of celiac in people with alopecia areata, as opposed to a cause-and-effect relationship for gluten in their diets.

Most of the research that shows a link also reports that people with both celiac and alopecia areata found their hair grew back when they adopted a gluten-free diet, but some non-celiacs with alopecia areata also experience seemingly random hair regrowth.

More on alopecia areata:
Celiac Disease and Alopecia Areata

• Chronic Urticaria (Hives) and Celiac Disease

A 2005 study found that 5% of children with chronic urticaria — or hives — also had celiac disease. Once the children in the study were diagnosed with celiac disease and adopted the gluten-free diet, all saw their chronic urticaria disappear within five to 10 weeks.

• Acne and Celiac Disease

Although there's no published medical research showing a link between celiac disease or gluten intolerance and the common teenage skin condition acne, many acne sufferers have reported relief from their skin condition when they went gluten-free. However, if the acne sufferers adopted a low-carb diet in addition to a diet devoid of gluten, it's possible that caused the acne improvement, since low-carb diets have been shown to clear pimples.

• Keratosis Pilaris (Chicken Skin) and Celiac Disease

Again, while there's no research that links celiac with keratosis pilaris, a skin condition that causes tiny goosebump-like bumps to form, mainly on the backs of your upper arms, many people report that the condition disappears once they adopt a gluten-free diet. Keratosis pilaris is more common in those with with eczema and seems to run in families.

• Dry Skin and Celiac Disease

Many people with celiac disease suffer from very dry skin, and in some cases this clears up after they adopt a gluten-free diet. Again, it's not clear whether the condition causes the dry skin, but some physicians have suggested that the malabsorption associated with untreated celiac disease can rob your skin of needed nutrients.

Sources:

L. Caminiti et al. Chronic urticaria and associated coeliac disease in children: A case-control study. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2005 Aug; 16(5):428-32.

C. Ciacci et al. Allergy prevalence in adult celiac disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2004 jun;113(6):1199-203.

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